WHAT IS PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE?
We need specific languages in order to communicate with other person in the same way programmers need specific languages to communicate with computers and these specific languages are known as programming languages. In other words, the language used by the developers of programmers to communicate with computer is called programming language. Under programming languages instructions are written in a particular language (Java, C, C++) to perform specific tasks.
The main advantage of programming language is to develop websites mobile and desktop applications, etc.
TYPES OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE
There are 3 types of programming language which are explained as follow:
A. High level programming language:
High level programming language (HLL) is used in the development of user-friendly software programs and websites. And it requires the interpreter or compiler for the translation of program into machine language to the execute the program. High level programming language is easy to write read and maintain.
It is further classified into three types:
• Procedural oriented programming language:
Procedural oriented programming language is a programming language which is derived from structured programming and it is based on the procedure call concept. In this, program is splits into smaller procedure that are known as routine or functions. Software programmer use procedure oriented programming language in creation of programs which can be executed by using programming editor. In procedural oriented programming language a programmer can easily tractor flow of program and also code can be used again in several parts of program.
• Object oriented programming language:
Object oriented programming language is a programming language that is based on the objects . It divides a program into small parts which are known as objects. It is used to make a program simple, reusable and efficient. Object oriented programming language gives us the advantage of easier maintenance, execution and modification.
• Natural language:
The part of human languages is known as natural language such as English, Japanese, German, Chinese, Russian, etc. Machine uses natural language in order to manipulate, interpret and understand human language. Developer use it for translation, topic segmentation, automatic summarisation, etc.
B. Low level programming language:
It is a programming language in which written instructions are machine dependent. Low level programming language does not require any compiler or interpreter because the processor runs low level program directly. And therefore the programs written in low level language are memory efficient and runs very fast.
It is further classified into two types which are given below:
• Machine language:
first type of low level programming language is machine language which is also known as object code or machine code. Machine language is generally displayed in hexadecimal or binary form due to which it is easier to read it. Computers understand the machine language program directly so it does not need any translator to convert it. The main advantage of of machine language is that it makes easier for execution of programs in comparison to high level programming languages.
• Assembly language:
Another type of low level programming language is assembly language (ASM) which is designed for specific processors. It includes the set of instructions in the form which is symbolic and human understandable. An assembler converts assembly language to machine language. The main advantage of assembly language is that it takes less time to executive program.
C. Middle level programming language:
It lies between high level and low level programming language. And the other names of middle level programming language are the intermediate programming language and pseudo language. It is a user friendly programming language which is related to both machine as well as human language.
MOST USED PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES
Let's discuss about the most commonly used programming language which are as follows:
|Python Progrming language|
1. Python Programming language
Python is a user friendly programming language which was developed in the the 1990s and at present time it is one of the most used programming language. Python is an open-source programming language which is easy to learn, read and understand. Python is mainly used in artificial intelligence, big data, robotics, machine learning, etc.
Pros of Python:
• It is easy to learn read understand and write
• Python unifies with other programming languages.
• it is time and money saving language because you can work more with fewer codes.
Cons of Python:
• Python works slower in comparison of other programming language because it works with interpreter.
• it is not convenient for developing mobile games and applications.
|C programming language|
2. C Programming language
C is a popular and simple computer programming language which is developed by Dennis M Ritchie in 1972 at AT&T. C is a fusion of high level and low level programming language. And it is simply used in designing application such as compilers, text editors, network devices, etc.
Pros of C:
• It helps in performing complex calculations.
• it is easy to learn C programming language.
• it is a powerful and efficient programming language which provides a vast platform to perform different operations.
Cons of C:
• It is very difficult to find error in C programming language.
• it does not support constructors or destructive concept.
|C++ programming language|
3. C++ Programming language
Bjarne Stroustrup had developed C++ programming language in in 1980. C++is used to develop software just like other thousands of programming languages. It is just same as C programming language but the only difference is that include some extra features like type checking, exception handling, etc.
Pros of C++:
• It is a portable structured programming language.
• unlike C it supports OOPs feature like Abstraction, Encapsulation, etc.
• C++ show more compatibility with C programming language.
Cons of C++:
• It does not support the feature of garbage collection.
• There are some security issues in C++ programming language.
|Java programming language|
4. Java programming language
It is a secure and reliable high level programming language. In 1995, it was developed by Sun Microsystems. And the current owner of Java is Oracle. The main use of Java is to develop applications like information technology, Android, big data, web etc.
Pros of Java:
• In comparison of other programming languages Java is simple and easy to learn, write and debug.
• it provides a feature of platform independent.
• Java can perform multiple tasks at one time.
Cons of Java:
• Backup facility is not available in Java.
• it consumes more memory and time as compared to other programming languages.
|R programming language|
5. R programming language
R is one of the most popular programming languages at present time. It is developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in 1993. It is mainly used in statistical computing, scientific research, data analytic, etc.
Pros of R:
• R is an open source programming language.
• it supports data wrangling.
• R includes an easy to use interface.
Cons of R:
• It does not provide support for 3D graphics
• In comparison to other programming languages it is slower.
|C# programming language|
6. C# Programming language
It is pronounced as C sharp. C# is a object oriented and general-purpose programming language. It was developed to make improvements in productivity of web application.
Pros of C#:
• it is an open source and type-safe programming language.
• it can be easily integrated with windows.
• it provides the facility of strong memory backup.
Cons of C#:
• it is difficult to read, write, learn and debug.
• it is less flexible as it is completely based on .Net framework.
|PHP programming language|
7. PHP programming language
The full form of PHP is hypertext preprocessor. It is an powerful server side scripting language which is developed in 1994 by Rasmus Laird. The main use of PHP is to develop both static as well as dynamic websites.
Pros of PHP:
• It is used easy to use as compared to other programming languages.
• it provides support for powerful online libraries.
• it is more compatible with cloud services.
Cons of PHP:
• It is not convenient for large number of applications.
• PHP is hard to maintain.
• It reduces loading time from the server.
• it is versatile and simple programming language.
• it provides ability to develop attractive and dynamic websites.
• It does not provide support for multiple inheritance.
• it has security issues.
|Ruby Programming language|
9. Ruby programming languages
It is also an pure object oriented and open source programming language which was developed in 1993. The main use of Ruby is to right common gateway interface (CGI) scripts.
Pros of Ruby:
• It provides supports to different GUI tools.
• in Ruby codes are written small and it contains less lines.
• Ruby is used in developing both internet and intranet applications.
Cons of Ruby:
• It performs slow in comparison of other programming languages.
• it is hard to debug the code written in Ruby.
|Go programming language|
10. Go programming language
Go stands for golang which is a simple reliable and an open source programming language. It was developed in 2007 by Rob Pike, Ken Thomson and Robert Griesemer.
Pros of Go:
• It is a easy to use and easy to learn programming language.
• it includes in-built testing tools.
• it performs fast in comparison to other programming languages.
Cons of Go:
• It does not provide support to generics.
• it also does not provide support to error handling and framework.
|Objective-c programming language|
11. Objective C programming languages
It is both Procedural and object oriented programming language which is additional to C programming language that is mainly based on Smalltalk. It is mostly used by developers to write IPhone applications.
Pros of Objective C:
• it is a powerful and efficient programming language.
• objective C is a portable programming language.
• it has quality to extend itself.
Cons of objective C:
• it lacks in exception handling.
• it contains low level of constructors and destructors.
|Swift programming language|
12. Swift programming language
It was developed by Chris Lattner with the collaboration of other programmers at Apple in order to resolve the existed difficulties in Objective C. It has become the one of the top 5 programming languages.
Pros of Swift:
• It is easy to read and write as it involves simplified syntax and grammar.
• It is more compatible with Objective C.
• Error handling function of Swift prevents code crashes and errors.
Cons of Swift:
• It includes many issues that need to be fixed.
• It is much smaller in comparison to other programming languages.
Above we have discussed about what is programming language and different types of programming language. And we have also discussed about the most commonly used programming languages. I hope that this content will be helpful to you.